Some important general rules

When any part of a ball touches;
    * a putting green, it is on the putting green
    * the teeing ground, it is in the teeing ground
    * a bunker, it is in the bunker
    * a water hazard, it is in the water hazard (including touching the stake or line)
    * casual water, it is in casual water
    * an abnormal ground condition, it is in the abnormal ground condition
    * the course, it is in bounds (i.e. not out of bounds)

Obviously all of the above have implications which I will touch on in the coming weeks